who was Pablo Picasso:

Pablo Picasso, in full Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano María Remedios de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso, likewise called (before 1901) Pablo Ruiz or Pablo Ruiz Picasso.

Pablo Picasso:

( Pablo Picasso was born October 25, 1881, Málaga, Spain—kicked the bucket April 8, 1973, Mougins, France), Spanish ostracized painter, artist, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage originator, one of the best and most-powerful specialists of the twentieth century and the maker (with Georges Braque) of Cubism. (For more data on Picasso’s name see Specialist’s Note: Picasso’s complete name.)The tremendous body of Picasso’s work remains, and the legend lives on—a recognition for the essentialness of the “disturbing” Spaniard with the “serious… penetrating” eyes who oddly accepted that work would keep him alive. For almost 80 of his 91 years, Picasso committed himself to a creative creation that contributed fundamentally to and resembled the entire advancement of current workmanship in the twentieth century.

Life and career

Early years:

Pablo Picasso was the son of José Ruiz Blasco, an educator of drawing, and Maria Picasso López. His surprising skill for attracting started to show itself ahead of schedule, around the age of 10, when he turned into his dad’s student in A Coruña, where the family moved in 1891. Starting there his capacity to explore different avenues regarding what he realized and to foster new expressive means immediately permitted him to outperform his dad’s capacities. In A Coruña his dad moved his own desires to those of his child, giving him shows and backing for his first display there at age 13.

The family moved to Barcelona in the autumn of 1895, and Pablo entered the local art academy (La Llotja), where his father had assumed his last post as professor of drawing. The family hoped that their son would achieve success as an academic painter, and in 1897 his eventual fame in Spain seemed assured; in that year his painting Science and Charity, for which his father modeled for the doctor, was awarded an honorable mention in Madrid at the Fine Arts Exhibition.

The Spanish capital was the obvious next stop for the young artist intent on gaining recognition and fulfilling family expectations. Pablo Ruiz duly set off for Madrid in the autumn of 1897 and entered the Royal Academy of San Fernando. But finding the teaching there stupid, he increasingly spent his time recording life around him, in the cafés, on the streets, in the brothels, and in the Prado, where he discovered Spanish painting. He wrote: “The Museum of paintings is beautiful. Velázquez first class; from El Greco some magnificent heads, Murillo does not convince me in every one of his pictures.” Works by those and other artists would capture Picasso’s imagination at different times during his long career. Goya, for instance, was an artist whose works Picasso copied in the Prado in 1898 (a portrait of the bullfighter Pepe Illo and the drawing for one of the Caprichos, Bien tirada está, which shows a Celestina [procuress] checking a young maja’s stockings). Those same characters reappear in his late work—Pepe Illo in a series of engravings (1957) and Celestina as a kind of voyeuristic self-portrait, especially in the series of etchings and engravings known as Suite 347 (1968).

Picasso fell ill in the spring of 1898 and spent most of the remaining year convalescing in the Catalan village of Horta de Ebro in the company of his Barcelona friend Manuel Pallarès. When Picasso returned to Barcelona in early 1899, he was a changed man: he had put on weight; he had learned to live on his own in the open countryside; he spoke Catalan; and, most important, he had made the decision to break with his art-school training and to reject his family’s plans for his future. He even began to show a decided preference for his mother’s surname, and more often than not he signed his works P.R. Picasso; by late 1901 he had dropped the Ruiz altogether.

In Barcelona Picasso moved among a circle of Catalan artists and writers whose eyes were turned toward Paris. Those were his friends at the café Els Quatre Gats (“The Four Cats,” styled after the Chat Noir [“Black Cat”] in Paris), where Picasso had his first Barcelona exhibition in February 1900, and they were the subjects of more than 50 portraits (in mixed media) in the show. In addition, there was a dark, moody “modernista” painting, Last Moments (later painted over), showing the visit of a priest to the bedside of a dying woman, a work that was accepted for the Spanish section of the Exposition Universelle in Paris in that year. Eager to see his own work in place and to experience Paris firsthand, Picasso set off in the company of his studio mate Carles Casagemas (Portrait of Carles Casagemas [1899]) to conquer, if not Paris, at least a corner of Montmartre.

Discovery of Paris.

One of Picasso’s principal artistic discoveries on that trip (October–December) was color—not the drab colors of the Spanish palette, the black of the shawls of Spanish women, or the ochres and browns of the Spanish landscape but brilliant color—the color of Vincent van Gogh, of new fashion, of a city celebrating a world’s fair. Using charcoal, pastels, watercolors, and oils, Picasso recorded life in the French capital (Lovers in the Street [1900]). In Moulin de la Galette (1900) he paid tribute to French artists such as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and the Swiss Théophile Alexandre Steinlen as well as his Catalan compatriot Ramon Casas.After just two months Picasso returned to Spain with Casagemas, who had become despondent about a failed love affair. Having tried unsuccessfully to amuse his friend in Málaga, Picasso took off for Madrid, where he worked as an art editor for a new journal, Arte Joven. Casagemas returned to Paris, attempted to shoot the woman he loved, and then turned the gun on himself and died. The impact on Picasso was deep: it was not just that he had lost his loyal friend and perhaps felt a sense of guilt for having abandoned him; more important, he had gained the emotional experience and the material that would stimulate the powerful expressiveness of the works of the so-called Blue Period. Picasso made two death portraits of Casagemas several months later in 1901 as well as two funeral scenes (Mourners and Evocation), and in 1903 Casagemas appeared as the artist in the enigmatic painting La Vie.

Blue Period of Pablo Picasso.

Between 1901 and mid-1904, when blue was the predominant color in his paintings, Picasso moved back and forth between Barcelona and Paris, taking material for his work from one place to the other. For example, his visits to the Women’s Prison of Saint-Lazare in Paris in 1901–02, which provided him with free models and compelling subject matter (The Soup [1902]), were reflected in his depictions of Barcelona street people—blind or lonely beggars and castaways in 1902–03 (Crouching Woman [1902]; Blind Man’s Meal [1903]; Old Jew and a Boy [1903]). The subject of maternity (women were allowed to keep nursing children with them at the prison) also preoccupied Picasso at a time when he was searching for material that would best express traditional art-historical subjects in 20th-century terms.

The move to Paris and the Rose Period

Picasso finally made the decision to move permanently to Paris in the spring of 1904, and his work reflects a change of spirit and especially a response to different intellectual and artistic currents. The traveling circus and saltimbanques became a subject he shared with a new and important friend, Guillaume Apollinaire. To both the poet and the painter those rootless wandering performers (Girl Balancing on a Ball [1905]; The Actor [1905]) became a kind of evocation of the artist’s position in modern society. Picasso specifically made that identification in the Family of Saltimbanques (1905), where he assumes the role of Harlequin and Apollinaire is the strongman (according to their mutual friend, the writer André Salmon).

Pablo Picasso: Seated HarlequinSeated Harlequin, oil painting by Pablo Picasso, 1923; in the Kunstmuseum Basel, Switzerland.Courtesy of the Public Art Museum, Basel, Switz., permission S.P.A.D.E.M. 1972 by French Production Rights Inc.; photograph, H. Hintz/J.P. Ziolo

Picasso’s personal circumstances also changed when at the end of 1904 Fernande Olivier became his mistress. Her presence inspired many works during the years leading up to Cubism, especially on their trip to Gosol in 1906 (Woman with Loaves).

Colour never came easily to Picasso, and he reverted to a generally more-Spanish (i.e., monochromatic) palette. The tones of the Blue Period were replaced from late 1904 to 1906 in the so-called Rose Period by those of pottery, of flesh, and of the earth itself (The Harem [1906]). Picasso seems to have been working with colour in an attempt to come closer to sculptural form, especially in 1906 (Two NudesLa Toilette). His Portrait of Gertrude Stein (1906) and a Self-Portrait with Palette (1906) show that development as well as the influence of his discovery of archaic Iberian sculpture.

Les Demoiselles d’Avignon

Toward the end of 1906 Picasso began work on a large composition that came to be called Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907). His violent treatment of the female body and masklike painting of the faces (influenced by a study of African art) have made that work controversial. Yet the work was firmly based upon art-historical tradition: a renewed interest in El Greco contributed to the fracturing of the space and the gestures of the figures, and the overall composition owed much to Paul Cézanne’s Bathers as well as to J.-A.-D. Ingres’s harem scenes. The Demoiselles, however—later named to refer to Avignon Street in Barcelona, where sailors found popular brothels—was perceived as a shocking and direct assault: the women were not conventional images of beauty but prostitutes who challenged the very tradition from which they were born. Although he had his collectors by that date (Americans Leo and Gertrude Stein and the Russian merchant Sergey Shchukin) and soon a dealer (Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler), Picasso chose to roll up the canvas of the Demoiselles and to keep it out of sight for several years.

Pablo Picasso: Les Demoiselles d’AvignonLes Demoiselles d’Avignon, oil on canvas by Pablo Picasso, 1907; in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City.gwen

In 1908 the African-influenced striations and masklike heads were superseded by a technique that incorporated elements he and his new friend Georges Braque found in the work of Cézanne, whose shallow space and characteristic planar brushwork are especially evident in Picasso’s work of 1909. Still lifes, inspired by Cézanne, also became an important subject for the first time in Picasso’s career. Cubist heads of Fernande include the sculpture Head of a Woman (1909) and several paintings related to it, including Woman with Pears (1909).

Cubism of Pablo Picasso.

Picasso and Braque worked together closely during the next few years (1909–12)—the only time Picasso ever worked with another painter in this way—and they developed what came to be known as Analytical Cubism. Early Cubist paintings were often misunderstood by critics and viewers because they were thought to be merely geometric art. Yet the painters themselves believed they were presenting a new kind of reality that broke away from Renaissance tradition, especially from the use of perspective and illusion. For example, they showed multiple views of an object on the same canvas to convey more information than could be contained in a single limited illusionistic view.

The 1930s.

The privacy of his life with the undemanding Marie-Thérèse formed a contrast to the hectic pace of life kept by Olga and her bourgeois circle of society friends. Once in Boisgeloup, Picasso lived secretly with Marie-Thérèse (with whom he had a child, Maya, in 1935), and she became the subject of his often lyrical, sometimes erotic paintings, in which he combined intense colour with flowing forms (Girl Before a Mirror [1932]).


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Hans Hartung:

French painter

 September 21, 1904 Leipzig Germany
 December 7, 1989 (aged 85) Antibes France (Died on this day)
Movement / Style:
 Tachism abstract art

Hans Hartung, (born Sept. 21, 1904, Leipzig, Ger.—died Dec. 7, 1989, Antibes, Fr.), French painter of German origins, one of the leading European exponents of a completely abstract style of painting.

He became particularly well known for his carefully composed, almost calligraphic arrangements of black lines on coloured backgrounds.Hartung received conventional training at art academies in Leipzig and Dresden, but even as a young man he made inkblot abstractions. An early influence was the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, who also had eschewed recognizable objects.In 1931 Hartung had a one-man exhibition in Dresden, but success was not forthcoming. Sick and short of funds, he spent the next three years on Minorca. He returned to Germany but, abhorring Nazism, settled in Paris in 1935; he became a French citizen in 1946. In World War II he served with the French Foreign Legion in North Africa and Alsatia, where he was seriously wounded. His service was interrupted by confinement in a Spanish concentration camp, from which he was released as a result of U.S. intervention.Hartung’s mature style, which involved swirling, energetic linear motifs, found an eager public after the war. A successful showing of his work in Paris (1947) was followed by exhibits elsewhere in Europe and in the United States, Japan, and Latin America. In 1960 he was awarded the Grand Prix of the Venice Biennale, where an entire room of the French Pavilion was devoted to his work. He had a decisive influence on the postwar generation of abstract painters in Europe.Hartung’s later works became progressively calmer and more stable. Many of his works are titled by letters and numbers.

abstract art:

Alternate titles: nonfigurative art, nonobjective art, nonrepresentational art.

Tamatina Modern Art Canvas Painting | Sufiyana | Contemporary | Abstract Art Unframed Painting for Home décor|Size – 13X10 Inches.s349

abstract art, also called nonobjective art or nonrepresentational artpaintingsculpture, or graphic art in which the portrayal of things from the visible world plays little or no part. All art consists largely of elements that can be called abstract—elements of form, colour, line, tone, and texture. Prior to the 20th century, these abstract elements were employed by artists to describe, illustrate, or reproduce the world of nature and of human civilization—and exposition dominated over expressive function.Abstract art in its strictest sense has its origins in the 19th century. The period characterized by so vast a body of elaborately representational art produced for the sake of illustrating anecdote also produced a number of painters who examined the mechanism of light and visual perception. The period of Romanticism had put forward ideas about art that denied classicism’s emphasis on imitation and idealization and had instead stressed the role of imagination and of the unconscious as the essential creative factors. Gradually many painters of this period began to accept the new freedom and the new responsibilities implied in the coalescence of these attitudes. Maurice Denis’s statement of 1890, “It should be remembered that a picture—before being a war-horse, a nude, or an anecdote of some sort—is essentially a flat surface covered with colours assembled in a certain order,” summarizes the feeling among the Symbolist and Post-Impressionist artists of his time. All the major movements of the first two decades of the 20th century, including FauvismExpressionismCubism, and Futurism, in some way, emphasized the gap between art and natural appearances.There is, however, a deep distinction between abstracting from appearances, even if to the point of unrecognizability, and making works of art out of forms not drawn from the visible world. During the four or five years preceding World War I, such artists as Robert DelaunayWassily KandinskyKazimir Malevich, and Vladimir Tatlin turned to fundamentally abstract art. (Kandinsky was traditionally regarded as having been the first modern artist to paint purely abstract pictures containing no recognizable objects, in 1910–11. That narrative, however, was later questioned, especially in the 21st century with the renewed interest in Swedish artist Hilma af Klint. She painted her first abstract work in 1906 but with a different goal than achieving pure abstraction.) The majority of even the progressive artists regarded the abandonment of every degree of representation with disfavour, however. During World War I the emergence of the de Stijl group in the Netherlands and of the Dada group in Zürich further widened the spectrum of abstract art. There is, however, a deep distinction between abstracting from appearances, even if to the point of unrecognizability, and making works of art out of forms not drawn from the visible world. During the four or five years preceding World War I, such artists as Robert DelaunayWassily KandinskyKazimir Malevich, and Vladimir Tatlin turned to fundamentally abstract art. (Kandinsky was traditionally regarded as having been the first modern artist to paint purely abstract pictures containing no recognizable objects, in 1910–11. That narrative, however, was later questioned, especially in the 21st century with the renewed interest in Swedish artist Hilma af Klint. She painted her first abstract work in 1906 but with a different goal than achieving pure abstraction.) The majority of even the progressive artists regarded the abandonment of every degree of representation with disfavour, however. During World War I the emergence of the de Stijl group in the Netherlands and of the Dada group in Zürich further widened the spectrum of abstract art. Abstract art did not flourish between World Wars I and II. Beset by totalitarian politics and by art movements placing renewed emphasis on imagery, such as Surrealism and socially critical Realism, it received little notice. But after World War II an energetic American school of abstract painting called Abstract Expressionism emerged and had wide influence. Beginning in the 1950s abstract art was an accepted and widely practised approach within European and American painting and sculpture. Abstract art puzzled and indeed confused many people, but for those who accepted its non-referential language, there is no doubt as to its value and achievements.

performance art:

performance art, a time-based art form that typically features a live presentation to an audience or to onlookers (as on a street) and draws on such arts as actingpoetrymusicdance, and painting. It is generally an event rather than an artifact, by nature ephemeral, though it is often recorded on video and by means of still photography.

Performance art arose in the early 1970s as a general term for a multitude of activities—including Happenings, body art, actions, events, and guerrilla theatre. It can embrace a wide diversity of styles. In the 1970s and ’80s, performance art ranged from Laurie Anderson’s elaborate media spectacles to Carolee Schneeman’s body ritual and from the camp glamour of the collective known as General Idea to Joseph Beuys’s illustrated lectures. In the 1990s it ranged from Ron Athey’s AIDS activism to Orlan’s use of cosmetic surgery on her own body. And in the early 21st century, Marina Abramović rekindled a great interest in the medium through her re-creation of historical pieces.Performance art has its origins in the early 20th century, and it is closely identified with the progress of the avant-garde, beginning with Futurism. The Futurists’ attempt to revolutionize culture included performative evenings of poetry, music played on newly invented instruments, and a form of drastically distilled dramatic presentation. Such elements of Futurist events as simultaneity and noise-music were subsequently refined by artists of the Dada movement, which made great use of live art. Both Futurists and Dadaists worked to confound the barrier between actor and performer, and both capitalized on the publicity value of shock and outrage. An early theorist and practitioner in avant-garde theatre was the German artist Oskar Schlemmer, who taught at the Bauhaus from 1920 to 1929 and is perhaps best known for Das triadische Ballet (1916–22; “The Triadic Ballet”), which called for complex movements and elaborate costumes. Schlemmer presented his ideas in essays in a collective publication, Die Bühne im Bauhaus (1924; The Theater of the Bauhaus), edited by Walter Gropius.

First International Dada Fair, Berlin, 1920.
image: Courtesy of Hannah Hoch

Subsequent important developments in performance art occurred in the United States after World War II. In 1952, at Black Mountain College (1933–57) in North Carolina, the experimental composer John Cage organized an event that included performances by the choreographer and dancer Merce Cunningham, the poet Charles Olson, and the artist Robert Rauschenberg, among others. In its denial of traditional disciplinary boundaries, this influential event set a pattern for Happenings and Fluxus activities and provided an impetus for much of the live art of the following decade. In the 1960s and ’70s, performance art was characterized by improvisation, spontaneity, audience interaction, and political agitation. It also became a favourite strategy of feminist artists—such as the gorilla-masked Guerrilla Girls, whose mission was to expose sexism, racism, and corruption mainly in the art world—as well as of artists elsewhere in the world, such as the Chinese artist Zhang Huan. Popular manifestations of the genre can be seen in Blue Man Group and such events as the Burning Man festival, held annually in the Black Rock Desert, Nevada.

story about graphic design:

Egyptian Book of the Dead.

Key People: Jan TschicholdJules




the craftsmanship and calling of choosing and organizing visual components—like typography, pictures, images, and shadings—to pass on a message to a crowd of people. Now and again visual communication is designated “visual interchanges,” a term that underscores its capacity of giving structure—e.g., the plan of a book, promotion, logo, or Web webpage—to data. A significant piece of the originator’s assignment is to join visual and verbal components into an arranged and powerful entirety. Visual depiction is, consequently, a synergistic discipline: essayists produce words, and photographic artists and artists make pictures that the creator consolidates into a total visual correspondence.

The development of visual computerization as training and calling has been firmly bound to mechanical advancements, cultural necessities, and the visual creative mind of professionals. Visual computerization has been drilled in different structures since forever; without a doubt, solid instances of visual computerization date back to original copies in old China, Egypt, and Greece. As printing and book creation were created in the fifteenth century, progressed in visual depiction was created close by it over resulting hundreds of years, with printers or typesetters regularly planning pages as they set the sort.

In the late nineteenth century, visual communication arose as a particular calling in the West, to some degree due to the work specialization process that happened there, and partially due to the new advances and business prospects achieved by the Modern Unrest. New creation strategies prompted the partition of the plan of a correspondence medium (e.g., a banner) from its genuine creation. Progressively, throughout the span of the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth hundreds of years, publicizing organizations, book distributors, and magazines employed craftsmanship chiefs who coordinated all visual components of the correspondence and brought them into an agreeable entire, making an articulation suitable to the substance. In 1922 typographer William A. Dwiggins authored the term visual communication to recognize the arising field.

All through the twentieth century, the innovation accessible to creators kept on progressing quickly, as did the imaginative and business opportunities for the plan. The calling extended colossally, and visual architects made, in addition to other things, magazine pages, book coats, banners, smaller circle covers, postage stamps, bundling, brand names, signs, promotions, active titles for TV projects and films, and Sites. By the turn of the 21st century, visual computerization had turned into a worldwide calling, as cutting-edge innovation and industry spread all through the world. Typography is discussed in this essay as an element of the overall design of a visual communication; for a complete history, see typography. Similarly, the evolution of the printing process is discussed in this essay as it relates to developments in graphic design; for a complete history, see printing.

few Early printing and graphic design: